Skip to Main Content

Physician Assistant Sciences

EBM Pyramid

Evidence-Based Medicine is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. (Sackett DL, Straus SE, Richardson WS, et al. Evidence-based medicine: how to practice and teach EBM. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.)

Evidence Pyramid illustrating  the quality of reserach evidence.

EBM Pyramid and EBM Page Generator. (c) Copyright 2006-2011. Trustees of Dartmouth College and Yale University. All Rights Reserved.  Produced by Jan Glover, David Izzo, Karen Odato and Lei Wang.

Filtered Evidence

Filtered resources appraise the quality of studies and often make recommendations for practice.

Systematic Reviews / Meta-Analyses

Authors of a systematic review ask a specific clinical question, perform a comprehensive literature search, eliminate the poorly done studies and attempt to make practice recommendations based on the well-done studies. A meta-analysis is a systematic review that combines all the results of all the studies into a single statistical analysis of results.


Critically-Appraised Topics

Authors of critically-appraised topics evaluate and synthesize multiple research studies.


Critically-Appraised Individual Articles

Authors of critically-appraised individual articles evaluate and synthisize individual research studies.

Filtered and Unfiltered

Unfiltered Evidence

Evidence is not always available via filtered resources.

Searching the primary literature may be required.

It is possible to use specific search strategies to achieve the highest possible level of evidence.

In PubMed: Click on "Clinical Queries" on the  home page; Select "Find Systematic Reviews" and enter your search query.

Background Information/Expert Opinion

Note: Evidence in these resources may vary from expert opinion to high levels of evidence.