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Occupational Therapy

APA Guides

How your paper should look!

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doi or URL ?

Citing an electronically retrieved information source requires locator information in addititon to the publication information. Gather this information along with the publication information when organizing your reserach.

There are two types of locators.

1. DOI (digital object identifier) persistent uniqe number assigned to an article.

Citation Example: Author, A.A., Author, B.B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.27.3.379

   Most oftern found listed on the first page of a downloaded article file.

                                 no doi? search for your article in...

OR  if a doi can not be found, use the ...

2. URL (uniform resource locator) maps the location of information on the internet and includes the protocol, host name, path to the document and file name. For an article from databases include the URL for the database landing page.

Citation Example: Author, A.A., Author, B.B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp. Retrieved from URL

Why do we need these in our citation ? 

The second main purpose of citation... Guide the reader to the source you used. This means directing them by providing what it is and where you read it in full-text.

When do you include a retrieval date or date of access in a citation?

When a DOI is not available, and a URL is included, do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time (e.g., wikis, frequently updated medical information).  This is the format for what should be added at the end of the citation if needed based on the aforementioned rule:  Accessed June 16, 2017.

APA uses simple past tense verbs in a signal phrase. Use this list to assist in selecting the right verb for your source or to vary verb use.

Table showing the in-text citation formats, two columns showing the use of a signal phrase and two for parenthetical references based on the number and type of author.

Note: This table can be found on page 177 of the APA manual.

Table 6.1, APA Style Manual, in-text citation

Unknown Author When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate.

Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
For example, parenthetical citations of the source above would appear as follows: (Merriam-Webster's, 1993).

Source: American Psychological Association. (2010). Table 6.1 basic citation styles. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Headings in APA Style

Videos: Formatting a Paper in APA Citation Style, Word 2013

Content covered includes: margins, font, running head on the first page of your paper, page #'s, title page format, and spacing.

Post CSS. ( 2014, Sept. 24). Setting up the APA title page [Video file]. Retrieved from

Content covered includes: page break to the body of the paper, header on page 2 of your paper, paragraph indentation and spacing in the body of the paper.

Post CSS. ( 2014, Oct. 2). Setting up page 2 [Video file]. Retrieved from

Content covered includes: "References" formatting, left and center align, font, double spacing, hanging indentation, and removing hyperlinks in APA

Post CSS. (2014, Dec. 11). Setting up the References page [Video fiile]. Retrieved from

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